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V.I. Vernadsky and the new paradigm of economic science

Orlov Alexander Ivanovich,
prof., doctor of technical sciences, doctor of economic sciences,
candidate of physical and mathematical sciences,
Head of the Research Laboratory of Economic and Mathematical Methods
in Controlling,
Professor at Bauman Moscow State Technical University, prof-orlov@mail.ru

The new paradigm of economic science is based on a solidary digital economy, which we are developing in response to requests from the military-industrial complex (including aviation and astronautics) and other sectors of the national economy. In accordance with the new paradigm, we consider the problems of artificial intelligence and changing technological structures. The new paradigm comes from the overdue biocosmological turn towards the Organicist pole of Triadological scientific knowledge and the North-Eastern vector of world development. The doctrine of the noosphere by V.I. Vernadsky and Russian cosmism in general is of great importance for the new paradigm. The preliminary results of a large area of research reflected in a number of our books and articles are summed up (see RSCI).
As established by V.I. Vernadsky, the main prerequisites for the emergence of the noosphere are as follows:
The spread of Homo sapiens across the entire surface of the planet and its victory in competition with other biological species;
Development of planetary communication systems, creation of a unified information system for humanity;
The discovery of new sources of energy such as atomic energy, after which human activity becomes an important geological force;
The victory of democracies and access to government for the broad masses;
The increasing involvement of people in the pursuit of science, which also makes humanity a geological force.
The limits of growth determine the guidelines for economic development. Environmental problems have been the focus of attention of researchers and society as a whole for more than half a century. In 1972, the report “The Limits to Growth” by D. Meadows and others was published, which is still very relevant today. Since the currently accepted concept of expanded reproduction leads to exponential growth of macroeconomic indicators, the presence of growth limits leads to the conclusion that it is necessary to change the guidelines for economic development.
For the perception of the report, it is important that, according to the Russian Science Citation Index, the contribution to science of A.I. Orlov (measured by the number of citations) is 7.24 times more than the President of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Professor A.I. Orlov is the most cited researcher at Bauman Moscow State Technical University, one of the most cited mathematicians and economists in Russia. As of 12/14/2023, the RSCI lists 702 publications and 18,420 citations, with an H-index of 46.

Three stages in the development of economic science
It is necessary to analyze the development of economic science. Let us highlight three stages: Aristotle – market economy – modernity.
Aristotle - the first economist in the history of science. Economics for Aristotle is the science of rational management in economic life, of activities aimed at meeting people’s needs, i.e. for the production and acquisition of goods for the home and the state. Aristotle considered different levels of economic entities - household, enterprise (agricultural, urban production), city (polis), region (satrapy), state (empire). From Aristotle’s point of view, chrematism (i.e. activities aimed at acquiring benefits, making a profit, accumulating wealth, primarily in the form of money) is unnatural. Thus, Aristotle considered it necessary to support producers of goods and fight financial speculators.
The negation of Aristotle's views is a market economy focused on profit and increased consumption. In accordance with the views of supporters of a market economy the state must be removed from the leadership of economic life. Supporters of a market economy began to assign him the role of a “night watchman.” The main thing is to ensure free competition. The chrematistics criticized by Aristotle came to the fore with their fundamental rule: the purpose of economic activity is to obtain benefits (profits). It is quite natural that adherents of a market economy encourage activities in the field of financial speculation.
Let us note that even the understanding of the term “economy” itself has changed dramatically. From the point of view of marketers, Aristotle’s concept does not relate to economics, but to the theory of management of economic activities, i.e. to management. At the same time, management itself was moved from the center of economic science “to the margins” and declared to be only one part of it.
This is how Aristotle's economics was rejected. But soon, in accordance with the laws of dialectics, the negation of the negation began. Currently, the economy is mixed, operating on the basis of a combination of plan and market.
The need for active government intervention in economic life was realized by the end of the 19th century. And then - in the twentieth century. - state power structures actively managed the economy in the main economically developed countries. In particular, in the USA (especially under President F. Roosevelt during the Great Depression), in the USSR, in Germany. After World War II, government agencies were very active in managing economic processes in various countries around the globe - China, India, Japan, Singapore, France, etc. Even in the most “market” country - the USA - the share of state participation in the economy in the twentieth century. increased 4 times and reached approximately one third. (By the share of state participation in a country’s economy we mean the ratio of the expenditure part of its budget to the gross domestic product). The theoretical justification for the leading role of the state in managing economic life was given by the English economist J. Keynes.
Modernity is a period of denial of the market economy. To replace the “market economy,” a new paradigm of economic theory is needed. The need to return to Aristotle's concept at a new historical stage is becoming increasingly recognized. As the President of Russia V.V. unequivocally stated. Putin in a speech on October 21, 2021 at the plenary session of the XVIII meeting of the Valdai International Discussion Club: “The modern model of capitalism has exhausted itself as an economic system... We will be guided by the ideology of healthy conservatism”. As the basis of the new paradigm, we propose to use the solidary digital economy, the basic organizational and economic theory that we are developing.

Solidarity digital economy
The concept of “solidarity digital economy” has three components.
We understand “economy” according to Aristotle, according to whom the goal of production activity is to satisfy the needs of people and society (and not to obtain benefits or profits).
The adjective “digital” refers to the concept of a digital economy based on modern information and communication technologies that revolutionize the means of production.
The adjective “solidarity” means that industrial relations should be built on the basis of solidarity, mutual assistance, and not competition
The concept of a solidarity digital economy is presented in scientific periodicals and is quite widely known. As of 12/12/2023, 71 publications on the solidarity digital economy have been published (see list in http://forum.orlovs.pp.ru/viewtopic.php?f=2&t=951), and the main information resource “Solidarity Information Economy” has been viewed 414,367 times (https://orlovs.pp.ru/forum/viewtopic.php?f=2&t=570). See, for example, our monograph: Loiko V.I., Lutsenko E.V., Orlov A.I. Modern digital economy. – Krasnodar: KubGAU, 2018. – 508 p. (Chapter 1, pp. 12-58, 450-458)

Digital economy and decision making
Economic activity should be based on the intensive use of modern information and communication technologies, in other words, on the digital economy. As examples of such application, we point to the project OGAS (National automated system for recording and processing information) by V.M. Glushkov (implemented partially in the form of various automated control systems) and the CYBERSIN system of English cybernetic Anthony Stafford Beer (implemented in Chile). We believe that the solidary information economy, developing the ideas of Aristotle, should become the basis of a new paradigm of economic science. Management theory establishes that management decisions should be made on the basis of the entire set of five groups of factors - social, technological, economic, environmental, political. Consequently, economic science corresponding to one of these five groups of factors must be considered as part of management - the science of managing people. As a consequence, economics is part of management.
As shown in the solidary digital economy, modern information technologies and decision-making theory make it possible to develop and implement an information and communication system designed to identify the needs of people and society and organize production in order to satisfy them, both locally (for example, in a single country), and on a global scale. For the practical implementation of this opportunity, all that is needed is the will of the management of the relevant economic unit, aimed at transforming its management system. In particular, as is happening in most developed and developing countries, the Russian state can and should become the main actor in the economy.

Creators of the modern solidarity digital economy
The predecessors of the solidarity digital economy include primarily Aristotle, V.M. Glushkov, St. Beer. Many researchers have expressed thoughts similar to those of solidarity digital economy. You can name F. Bacon, G. Ford, K. Polanyi. At the present stage, theoretical developments and practical results achieved in the People's Republic of China are very important for the development of solidarity digital economy. As is known, since 2014 it has been the most economically powerful power of our time (with the largest volume of gross domestic product in the world, measured in comparable prices, i.e. based on the use of purchasing power parity).
Scottish economists W. Paul Cockshott and Allin F. Cottrell proved the theoretical possibility of organizing production in order to fully satisfy the needs of a country or humanity as a whole on the basis of direct product exchange. To calculate optimal management decisions within the framework of the world economy, the power of standard modern computers of the 21st century. quite enough. Consequently, in modern conditions it is impossible to agree with Hayek’s criticism of the planned economy, which proceeded from what took place in the mid-twentieth century. the impossibility of calculating the optimal development plan for the country based on the computers available at that time. A consequence of the work of V. Paul Cockshott and Allin F. Cottrell is the assertion that the USSR State Planning Committee, in principle, could not organize optimal planning of the national economy of our country due to a lack of computing power. However, at present it is already possible in principle to carry out such work.
A number of articles on the solidarity digital economy have been published in the science magazine BIOCOSMOLOGY – NEO-ARISTOTELISM - Bilingual Electronic Journal of Universalizing Scientific and Philosophical Research based upon the Original Aristotelian Cosmological Organicism (ISSN: 2225-1820), official organ of the Biocosmological Association (https:// biocosmology.org/).
About the author's scientific works see also our website “High statistical technologies” (https://orlovs.pp.ru/). New information you can find in the Russian scientific electronic library elibrary.ru, in the Russian Science Citation Index (https://www.elibrary.ru/author_items.as ... w_option=0) and on the forum of our website (forum: https://orlovs.pp.ru/forum/).

1277. Orlov A.I. V.I. Vernadsky and the new paradigm of economic science // Biocosmology – neo-Aristotelism. 2023. Vol.13. Yearly Issue. Pp. 100 - 104.

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